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Promoting healthy cardiovascular aging: emerging topics

J Cardiovasc Aging 2022;2:43.
Promoting healthy cardiovascular aging: emerging topics
Zachary S Clayton 1, Daniel H Craighead 1, Sanna Darvish 1, McKinley Coppock 1, Katelyn R Ludwig 1, Vienna E Brunt 1, Douglas R Seals 1, Matthew J Rossman 1
Abstract
The development of age-related cardiovascular (CV) dysfunction increases the risk of CV disease as well as other chronic age-associated disorders, including chronic kidney disease, and Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias. Major manifestations of age-associated CV dysfunction that increase disease risk are vascular dysfunction, primarily vascular endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffening, and elevated systolic blood pressure. Declines in nitric oxide bioavailability secondary to increased oxidative stress and inflammation are established mechanisms of CV dysfunction with aging. Moreover, fundamental mechanisms of aging, termed the “hallmarks of aging” extend to the CV system and, as such, may be considered “hallmarks of CV aging”. These mechanisms represent viable therapeutic targets for treating CV dysfunction with aging. Healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as regular aerobic exercise and certain dietary patterns, are considered “first-line” strategies to prevent and/or treat age-associated CV dysfunction. Despite the well-established benefits of these strategies, many older adults do not meet the recommended guidelines for exercise or consume a healthy diet. Therefore, it is important to establish alternative and/or complementary evidence-based approaches to prevent or reverse age-related CV dysfunction. Targeting fundamental mechanisms of CV aging with interventions such as time-efficient exercise training, food-derived molecules, termed nutraceuticals, or select synthetic pharmacological agents represents a promising approach. In the present review, we will highlight emerging topics in the field of healthy CV aging with a specific focus on how exercise, nutrition/dietary patterns, nutraceuticals and select synthetic pharmacological compounds may promote healthy CV aging, in part, by targeting the hallmarks of CV aging.
Keywords: Hallmarks of aging; arterial stiffness; endothelial function; exercise; inflammation; nutrition; oxidative stress
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