Endothelial function & proteomic studies of athletes, and a single dose of beetroot juice.

 J Appl Physiol (1985). 2018 Sep 20. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00458.2018. [Epub ahead of print]

Habitual Aerobic Exercise and Circulating Proteomic Patterns in Healthy Adults: Relation to Indicators of Healthspan.

Santos-Parker JR1, Santos-Parker KS2, McQueen MB3, Martens CR4, Seals DR5.

Author information

1
Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, United States.
2
Mathematics, University of Colorado Boulder.
3
Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder.
4
Kinesiology & Applied Physiology, University of Delaware, United States.
5
Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, United States.
Corresponding Author; email: seals@colorado.edu

Abstract

Habitual aerobic exercise enhances physiological function and reduces risk of morbidity and mortality throughout life, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The circulating proteome reflects the intricate network of physiological processes maintaining homeostasis, and may provide insight into the molecular transducers of the health benefits of physical activity. In this exploratory study, we assessed the plasma proteome (SOMAscan proteomic assay; 1129 proteins) of healthy sedentary or aerobic exercise-trained young women and young and older men (n= 47). Using weighted correlation network analysis to identify clusters of highly co-expressed proteins, we characterized 10 distinct plasma proteomic modules (patterns). In healthy young (24±1 years) men and women, 4 modules were associated with aerobic exercise status, and 1 with participant sex. In healthy young and older (64±2 years) men, 5 modules differed with age, but 2 of these were partially preserved at young adult levels in older men who exercised; among all men, 4 modules were associated with exercise status, including 3 of the 4 identified in young adults. Exercise-linked proteomic patterns were related to pathways involved in wound healing, regulation of apoptosis, glucose-insulin and cellular stress signaling, and inflammation/immune responses. Importantly, several of the exercise-related modules were associated with physiological and clinical indicators of healthspan, including diastolic blood pressure, insulin resistance, maximal aerobic capacity, and vascular endothelial function. Overall, these findings provide initial insight into circulating proteomic patterns modulated by habitual aerobic exercise in healthy young and older adults, the biological processes involved, and their relation to indicators of healthspan.

KEYWORDS:

SomaLogic; blood pressure; inflammation; weighted correlation network analysis

Br J Nutr 2018 Sep 19:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S0007114518002441. [Epub ahead of print]

A single dose of beetroot juice improves endothelial function but not tissue oxygenation in pregnant women: a randomised clinical trial.

Volino-Souza M1, de Oliveira GV1, Alvares TS1.

Author information

1
Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Research Group,Nutrition Institute,Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro,Macaé, 27979-000 Rio de Janeiro,Brazil.

Abstract

Beetroot juice (BJ) consumption has been associated with improved cardiovascular health owing to an increase in NO bioconversion. This study evaluates the effect of BJ consumption on macrovascular endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD)) and muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) parameters in pregnant women within a randomised, crossover, double-blind design in which twelve pregnant women consumed a single dose (140 ml) of BJ or placebo (PLA). Urinary nitrate was assessed before (T0) and 150 min after BJ/PLA consumption. FMD was used to evaluate macrovascular endothelial function, and near-IR spectroscopy was used to evaluate muscle StO2 parameters during the occlusion and reperfusion phases, which were taken at baseline (PRE) and 120 and 140 min after BJ/PLA consumption, respectively. A significant increase in urinary nitrate was observed at 150 min after BJ consumption when compared with T0 (BJ: 0·20 (sd 0·13) v. T0: 0·02 (sd 0·00), P=0·000) and PLA intervention (PLA: 0·02 (sd 0·00), P=0·001). FMD improved after BJ consumption when compared with PRE (BJ: 11·00 (sd 1·67) v. PRE: 5·53 (sd 1·17), P=0·000) and PLA (5·34 (sd 1·31), P=0·000). No significant difference between PLA and PRE in FMD (P=1·000) was observed. In StO2 parameters, a difference was not observed after BJ consumption compared with PRE and PLA intervention. The data demonstrate that a single dose of 140 ml of BJ consumption improves macrovascular endothelial function, but not StO2 parameters.

KEYWORDS:

BJ beetroot juice; FGR fetal growth restriction; FMD flow-mediated dilatation; GDM gestational diabetes mellitus; NIRS near-IR spectroscopy; PLA placebo; PRE baseline; StO2 base baseline oxygen saturation; StO2 max maximal oxygen saturation; StO2 min minimum oxygen saturation; StO2 oxygen saturation; StO2 slope_1 desaturation rate; StO2 slope_2 resaturation rate; StO2 tmax time to maximal oxygen saturation; Dietary nitrate; Functional food; Microcirculation; Pregnancy; Vascular function

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